CARL SAGAN BALONEY DETECTION KIT PDF

By Maria Popova Carl Sagan November 9, —December 20, was many things — a cosmic sage , voracious reader , hopeless romantic , and brilliant philosopher. If the new idea survives examination by the tools in our kit, we grant it warm, although tentative, acceptance. By adopting the kit, we can all shield ourselves against clueless guile and deliberate manipulation. They will do so again in the future. Perhaps a better way to say it is that in science there are no authorities; at most, there are experts. Spin more than one hypothesis.

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Here, infallibility is absurd because Universal Knowledge is endless and the evolution of Self is perpetually thirsty for that knowing. Freedom of expression is honored here. Opinions expressed by authors in written content are not advocated for good or ill. That lies in the path of personal discernment.

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Arguments from authority carry little weight in science there are no "authorities". Quantify, wherever possible. If there is a chain of argument every link in the chain must work. Ask whether the hypothesis can, at least in principle, be falsified shown to be false by some unambiguous test.

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The Balony Detection Kit - Carl Sagan on Critical Thinking

The following are suggested as tools for testing arguments and detecting fallacious or fraudulent arguments: Wherever possible there must be independent confirmation of the facts. Encourage substantive debate on the evidence by knowledgeable proponents of all points of view. Arguments from authority carry little weight in science there are no "authorities". Quantify, wherever possible. If there is a chain of argument every link in the chain must work. Ask whether the hypothesis can, at least in principle, be falsified shown to be false by some unambiguous test.

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Here, infallibility is absurd because Universal Knowledge is endless and the evolution of Self is perpetually thirsty for that knowing. Freedom of expression is honored here. Opinions expressed by authors in written content are not advocated for good or ill. That lies in the path of personal discernment. Write your own script. To our evergrowing LFN community for their interest and support. Special gratitude to our writers, artists, poets and proficients for sharing their expertise and knowledge!

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