Description[ edit ] Each of the four parts represents a season in the life of the peasants — Autumn published in , Winter published in , Spring published in , and Summer published in This division underlines the relationship of human life with nature. Analysis[ edit ] Reymont decided to write about peasant life because of historical events, which took place in Polish villages in the early 20th century. In The Peasants, Reymont created a more complete and suggestive picture of country life than any other Polish writer. The novel impresses the reader with its authenticity of the material reality, customs, behaviour and spiritual culture of the people.
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Reymont was defiantly stubborn; after a few years of education in the local school, he was sent by his father to Warsaw into the care of his eldest sister and her husband to teach him his vocation. In , after passing his examinations and presenting "a tail-coat, well-made", he was given the title of journeyman tailor, his only formal certificate of education. Instead, he first ran away to work in a travelling provincial theatre and then returned in the summer to Warsaw for the "garden theatres".
He ran away twice more: in to Paris and London as a medium with a German spiritualist and then again to join a theatre troupe.
After his lack of success he was not a talented actor , he returned home again. Reymont then visited the editorial offices of various newspapers and magazines, and eventually met other writers who became interested in his talent including Mr. No longer poor, he would soon satisfy his passion for travel, visiting Berlin, London, Paris, and Italy. His earnings did not allow for this kind of life of travel.
However, in he was awarded 40, rubles in compensation from the Warsaw-Vienna Railway after an accident in which Reymont as a passenger was severely injured. Despite his ambitions to become a landowner, which led to an unsuccessful attempt to manage an estate he bought in near Sieradz , the life of the land proved not to be for him. However, Reymont could not take part in the award ceremony in Sweden due to a heart illness.
The award and the check for , Swedish kronor were sent to Reymont in France, where he was being treated. The urn holding his heart was laid in a pillar of the Holy Cross Church in Warsaw. Major books[ edit ] Critics admit a number of similarities between Reymont and the Naturalists. They stress that this was not a "borrowed" Naturalism but rather a record of life as experienced by the writer.
Moreover, Reymont never formulated an aesthetic of his writing. With little higher education and inability to read another language, Reymont realized that it was his knowledge of grounded reality, not literary theory, that was his strong suit. His novel Komediantka paints the drama of a rebellious girl from the provinces who joins a traveling theater troupe and finds, instead of escape from the mendacity of her native surroundings, a nest of intrigue and sham.
In Fermenty, a sequel to Komediantka, the heroine, rescued after a suicide attempt, returns to her family and accepts the burden of existence. Aware that dreams and ideas do not come true, she marries a nouveau riche who is in love with her. In the novel, the city destroys those who accept the rules of the "rat race", as well as those who do not.
The moral gangrene affects equally the three main characters, a German, a Jew, and a Pole. This dark vision of cynicism, illustrating the bestial qualities of men and the law of the jungle, where ethics, noble ideas and holy feelings turn against those who believe in them, are, as the author intended, at the same time a denunciation of industrialisation and urbanisation.
Ziemia Obiecana has been translated into at least 15 languages and two film adaptations—one in , directed by A. Hertz, the other, in , directed by Andrzej Wajda. It is authentic and written in the local dialect. Reymont uses dialect in dialogues and in narration, creating a kind of a universal language of Polish peasants.
Thanks to this, he presents the colourful reality of the "spoken" culture of the people better than any other author. It is not history that determines the rhythm of country life, but the "unspecified time" of eternal returns. The composition of the novel astonishes the reader with its strict simplicity and functionality.
The titles of the volumes signal a tetralogy in one vegetational cycle, which regulates the eternal and repeatable rhythm of village life.
Parallel to that rhythm is a calendar of religion and customs, also repeatable. In such boundaries Reymont placed a colourful country community with sharply drawn individual portraits. The repertoire of human experience and the richness of spiritual life, which can be compared with the repertoire of Biblical books and Greek myths , has no doctrinal ideas or didactic exemplifications. The author does not believe in doctrines, but rather in his knowledge of life, the mentality of the people described, and his sense of reality.
It is easy to point to moments of Naturalism e. It is equally easy to prove the Realistic values of the novel. None of the "isms" however, would be enough to describe it. Modzelewski in and by J. Rybkowski in and has been translated into at least 27 languages. The revolt quickly degenerates into abuse and bloody terror.