Calculate the number of bars as follows: 2. The following histogram displays the number of books on the x-axis and the frequency on the y-axis. There are calculator instructions for entering data and for creating a customized histogram. Create the histogram for Example 2. If necessary, do the same for L2. Press 1:Plot1.

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She is also co-author of Collaborative Statistics later renamed Introductory Statistics , the first free and open textbook published by OpenStax College, as well as Introductory Business Statistics. A pioneer in the open educational resources movement, Dr. Illowsky continues to advocate for greater open educational resources OER adoption in order to make the cost of attending college more affordable.

Since Dr. This interview has been edited and condensed for clarity and length. Why is OER particularly important to students at the community college level? Sometimes just a few hundred dollars is the difference between students being homeless or hungry. Thus, financial challenges widen that success gap.

How do open educational resources impact community college instructors? Open educational resources give instructors opportunities to collaborate with colleagues in order to provide students with better learning products.

It also allows them to take action to help their students in their higher education journey. But once they enter the classroom I can provide them with all the materials they need to succeed, and right on Day 1 of the course. Talk to me about how you developed your statistics textbook. At the time, my co-author, Susan Dean, and I were advocating for using graphing calculators in our statistics course as it was a course for non-STEM majors.

It was very controversial back then because some people believed calculations should be done by hand. At our college, we have a large proportion of Vietnamese and other Asian students.

And they shared with me a dice game that they played every New Year which involved a concept known as the binomial distribution. So I wrote an entire statistics lab about it. And we were using real data from the county and nearby areas in our courses to give the course topics more relevance. And how did you transform it from a traditional textbook to the first open textbook? We had a contract with a commercial publisher to publish our materials with a price cap to keep the book affordable.

A handful of schools starting using it, which was important because some schools may not accept transfer credits if they deem the materials used in the course are not up to their standards. But then our publisher was acquired by another and the affordable part fell through. Fortunately, we were able to purchase our copyright and we self-published for about ten years at a low-rate that kept students happy. This was before wide use of the internet so an online book was not even in our thoughts.

I was excited, and as soon as I arrived and learned what they were doing with OER, I was totally hooked! When I got back I talked to Sue about jumping on this bandwagon. The Hewlett Foundation funded a grant to study how an online textbook would work. And they wanted to do this with a textbook already being used. By then, our statistics book was widely in use so it was deemed credible and acceptable.

Bob Maxfield, who was on the Board of Trustees at Rice, had a foundation that purchased the copyright from Sue and me. Then, he donated the copyright to Rice with a Creative Commons Attribution license and we worked with the Connexions project while they converted the text into open and ADA accessible textbook.

I speak at a lot of conferences, I do a lot of advocacy — my first being with Michelson 20MM close to ten years ago when I was called up to assist with state policy on OER.

The intent of the policy is that projects funded with taxpayer monies, must be available to world. As I opened my material, I opened myself up to criticism both constructive and cruel which people feel very comfortable giving. Other times, we told those instructors that the beauty of OER is that they can download the materials and revise or reword sections however they deemed appropriate.

An instructor on my own campus had done just this to suit her teaching style, and we used it as an example to show others how open materials make for stronger content and a better learning experience. But OER give these instructors a chance to work on publication materials and contribute in an intellectually stimulating manner.

What do you see as the next big thing within textbook affordability at community colleges? And the second part is making Zero Textbook Cost pathways easy to find as well as the materials used in those courses.

So having that knowledge readily accessible would allow those pathways to be replicated at other schools. Also, we need to have at least one librarian at every college who is trained in OER research.


Barbara Illowsky



Introductory statistics


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