Evaluation on the ovicidal activity of some indigenous plant extracts on rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Staint. Galleriidae: Lepidoptera. Environment and Ecology, 13 2 ; 7 ref. Gorham JR,
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Editor: Marek jindra was Editor of this paper. Received Mar 15; Accepted Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome mitogenome of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton Lepidoptera: Pyralidae was determined as a circular molecular of 15, bp in size. The mitogenome composition 37 genes and gene order are the same as the other lepidopterans.
Nucleotide composition of the C. Twelve protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon, with the exception of coxl gene, which uses CGA as the initial codon. Nine protein-coding genes have the common stop codon TAA, and the nad2, cox1, cox2, and nad4 have single T as the incomplete stop codon. The mitogenome has several large intergenic spacer regions, the spacer1 between trnQ gene and nad2 gene, which is common in Lepidoptera.
Mitogenomes have a simple structure, undergo fast evolution, are normally maternal inherited, and have been broadly applied in phylogenetic reconstruction, phylogeography, population structure and dynamics, and molecular evolution Zhang et al.
Recent advancements in sequencing technology have lead to rapid growth of mitogenome data in Genbank. To date, the complete mitogenome sequences of more than species have been determined for insects, including 31 species of Lepidoptera that have been entirely or nearly entirely sequenced Coates et al.
Lepidoptera is the second largest order after Coleoptera within in Insecta and includes moths and butterflies. Most of them are agricultural and forestry pests, pollinators, and resources insects Li et al. Corcyra cephalonica Stainton Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is in a small subfamily of Galleriinae with species of Pyralidae, which contains more than species of 70 genera Heppner The genus Corcyra contains only two species, C. Corcyra cephalonica is used as the host for cultivating Trichogramma and other parasitoid wasps Muthukrishnan et al.
Moreover, it is lately being used as an experimental model insect. A group of the functional genes have been identified Nagamanju et al. The availability of the mitogenome sequence will definitely be beneficial in the basic and applied studies on C. In this paper, the mitogenome of C. So far, there are four species within Pyraloidea with known mitogenome: Diatraea saccharalis Li et al. The degenerate and specific primer pairs were designed based on the known mitochondrial sequences in Lepidoptera, or designed by Primer 5.
All the primers were synthesized by Shanghai Sangon Biotechnology Co. Table 1. Open in a separate window The entire mitogenome of the Corcyra was amplified in 17 fragments. All fragments were sequenced from both strands. Short amplified products were sequenced directly by internal primers, and long amplified products were sequenced completely by primer walking.
The rrnS-nad2 region was sequenced after cloning. Since the Corcyra does not utilize the AGG codon, use of the variant arthropod genetic code Abascal et al. Nucleotide composition and codon usage were calculated using MEGA4.
These values were also well within the range reported for other lepidopterans. Table 3. Open in a separate window Protein-coding genes The initial and termination codons of thirteen PCGs are shown in Table 2.
One exception is cox1gene, which used CGA as a start codon. Table 2.
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The white surface is sculptured and has a short nipple-like process at one end. The larvae are generally creamish — white except for the head capsule and the prothoracic tergite, which are brown. There are well-developed prolegs on abdominal segments and A fully matured larva measures 15 mm. The last-instar larva spins a closely woven, very tough, double-layered cocoon in which it develops into a dark-brown pupa. The anterior portion of the cocoon has a line of weakness through which the adult emerges.
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