BAB II 2. Munculnya kelompok bungkam di sebabkan tekanan dan tindasan terhadap suatu kelompok baik dalam bentuk ras,gender,pekerjaan dll. Tekenan tekanan yang di arahkan pada suatu kelompok tertentu menyebabkan pembungkama. Menurutnya, bahasa dalam budaya tertentu tidak memperlakukan setiap orang secara setara, dan tidak semua orang berkontribusi secara berimbang terhadap penciptaan bahasa tersebut. Wanita dan kelompok yang tersubordinasi lainnya tidak sebebas dan memiliki akses yang luas sebagaimana kaum pria dalam mengekspresikan apa yang mereka inginkan, kapan, dan di mana mereka menginginkannya, karena kata-kata dan nornma-norma yang digunakan pada dasarnya dibentuk oleh kelompok dominan, yaitu kaum pria itu sendiri. Ada tigaasumsi dari cheris kramarei : Wanita mempersepsi dunia secara berbeda dibanding pria karena pengalaman pria dan wanita yang berbeda serta adanyakegiatan kegiatan yang berakar pada pembagian pekerjaan Karena dominasi politik mereka ,sisitim persepsi pria dominan ,menghambat ekpresi bebas dari model alternatif wanita mengenai dunia Agar dapat berartisipasi di masyarakat wannita harus mentransformasikan model mereka sendiri sesuai dengan ekspresi yang diterima pria Menurut Kramarae dan para Teorisi Feminisme lainnya wanita sering kali tidak diperhitungkan dalam masyarakat kita.
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The theory states that language was mainly made by men. Women often find it harder to express themselves because they have to communicate through a language that was made by the opposite gender. Some examples are: Women are often referred to as the property of men e. Women have spent their whole lives trying to translate their thoughts into masculine metaphors war metaphors, sports metaphors, etc. So, women find it harder to express themselves through language and have their ideas heard and understood due to the inequality backed into our language.
Fortunately, Cheris Kramarae made up 3 key points to remember when thinking about muted group theory: 1. Language was made by dominant groups, particularly men. Historical circumstance means that men have had the power to create and shape language practices. Women have historically been seen as an inferior social group. The same can go for minority groups based on race, disability and other factors who have been pushed to the margins of society and unable to influence society as much.
Marginalized groups can find it harder to articulate themselves. Because dominant groups have controlled language and communication, their experiences have been historically privileged.
Their stories have been spread on TV and in movies more than the stories of marginalized groups. They have controlled the metaphors, figures of speech and labels for things.
As a result, the default way of talking is in the masculine fireman, policeman, postman, etc. Marginalized groups have to translate their thoughts before speaking. Even when minorities and women are able to speak in public, they have to translate their thoughts and ideas into the dominant form before speaking. A gender example Have you ever noticed that the protagonist in most books and films is a man? Similarly, most metaphors are masculine sporting and war metaphors, for example.
This has meant that women have become used to needing to translate their thoughts into a way that is acceptable to men before speaking publicly. A social class example Remember, muted group theory can explain the struggles of other marginalized groups too, such as the working class. Working-class people also have to translate their words into middle-class language a lot.
Middle-class people may be used to professional and academic language from their upbringing, but if a working-class person wants a well paid middle-class job, they have to constantly translate their words into a language more acceptable to the dominant social class. Examples of Muted Group Theory 1.
To this day, we tend to think of heart attack symptoms as heaviness on the chest and numbness in the left arm. To this day, society tends to pay more attention to heart attack symptoms that affect men than those that affect women. Linguistic Subordination of Women in Marriage Kramarae argues that women are often linguistically subordinated to men.
Women are defined in relation to their husbands Mrs. Women are usually seen as promiscuous and sexually deviant if they are known to have had too many sexual partners. Similarly, homosexual sex is often seen as taboo or frowned upon more than heterosexual intercourse, thereby muting their experiences in public discourse. Masculine Metaphors Sporting, hunting and fighting metaphors have become commonplace in English language. With these metaphors dominant in the English language, women often need to use them to be heard and understood clearly in workplaces and public discourse.
So, they need to adapt their way of speaking to embrace masculine perspectives. In the Workplace In order to be heard in the workplace, women often feel as if they need to frame their points in a masculine way.
Workplaces are used to masculine authority figures and the ways they talk. In Popular Culture Recently, there has been a big push to include marginalized voices in television, books and movies. This has been a conscious effort to make language and communication more inclusive. It will give voice to marginalized people and help them reclaim language. A very popular example from recent years is the movie Black Panther which is one of the few action hero movies in Hollywood that had a predominantly all-black cast.
Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths Pros It clearly explains how marginalization occurs: The theory sheds light on the marginalization of entire groups within society. It helps us identify the historical causes of systemic oppression that still impact society today. It can help us be more aware: The theory helps researchers like anthropologists and sociologists reflect on their language use and interpretation to be more inclusive and reflexive in their research.
The same can be said about people in the workplace: awareness of this issue is the first step to addressing our gender-based blindspots. It is an argument for affirmative action: The theory shows why it is important to have female and minority group researchers, business people, etc.
In positions of power. They can help reframe our interpretations of gendered language use in order to be more inclusive and responsive to female and minority group voices. It explains the relationship between language and power: The theory shows how power is exercised through language. Language makes some people i. Weaknesses Cons The theory is not quantifiable. MGT seems to embrace this hypothesis.
It assumes that men and women universally express themselves and use language differently. It separates us into distinct genders with distinct ways of thinking, ignoring the fact that language use may not be so cleanly divided along the lines of gender.
For example, a white woman may be simultaneously grouped into a dominant racial grouping and marginalized gender grouping. She may therefore be either dominant or marginalized depending on the situation.
It could be used to promote victimization: There is a worry that theories like this might be used only to think about how people are helpless victims. For example, by knowing and understanding this theory, marginalized groups could use language subversively to undermine its masculine structure.
It ignores the fact that most men have trouble fitting into a masculine mold as well. Dominant masculinity only explains a small subset of alpha males. The rest of the male gender may also be at a disadvantage in relation to alpha males and also need to do the same work of linguistic translation before speaking.
Muted Group Theory – Definition + 6 Examples (2020)
All About Theories for Communication. Muted Group Theory in Cultural Communication , Group Communication , Psychology, Behavioral And Social Science Introduction Muted group theory is a critical theory concerning the certain groups of people who remain powerless compared to the others. Edwin Ardener, a British anthropologist, introduced the concept. His noted contributions in anthropology are the studies on gender and found that the studies made by many ethnographers in the society was generalised to the male population and accumulated the finding accepting only one side.
Edwin W. Ardener
Perbedaan sosial menjadi perhatian besar bagi para sarjana pendukung teori kritis. Tradisi kritis menjelaskan bahwa kekuasaan dan keisitimewaan yang dimiliki suatu kelompok, serta penindasan yang dilakukan oleh kelompok tertentu terhadap kelompok lain merupakan produk dari bentuk komunikasi tertentu yang ada di masyarakat. Variasi pemikiran dalam tradisi kritis: Tradisi kritis berupaya untuk memahami sistem yang sudah baku yang diterima masyarakat begitu saja termasuk juga struktur kekuasaan dan kepercayaan atau ideologi yang mendominasi masyarakat, namun tradisi kritis memberikan perhatian utama pada kepentingan siapa yang lebih dilayani oleh struktur kekuasaan yang ada. Teori kritis menunjukkan ketertarikannya untuk mengemukakan adanya suatu bentuk penindasan sosial dan mengusulkan suatu pengaturan kekuasaan, dalam upaya mendukung emansipasi dan mendukung terwujudnya masyarakat yang lebih bebas dan lebih terpenuhi kebutuhannya. Para pendukung teori kritis berusaha untuk memadukan antara teori dan tindakan. Teori yang bersifat normatif harus bisa diimplementasikan untuk mendorong perubahan di tengah masyarakat. Tradisi kritis juga berfokus pada wacana dan teks yang mendukung atau mempromosikan ideologi tertentu; mendukung kekuasaan tertentu; mendukung untuk mengurangi atau meniadakan kepentingan kelompok atau kelas masyarakat teretntu.
Muted Group Theory: A Tool for Hearing Marginalized Voices
MGT can help those who have become aware of dynamics between the powerful and the marginalized but do not have a clear framework for articulating this awareness. MGT is well suited to exploring the subtle and overlapping power issues that occur in various settings, including, for example, congregational ministry and missions. More specifically, MGT has frequently been found useful for understanding communication dynamics between men and women. First, MGT will be introduced in terms of its development from the s to the present, its basic tenets dominance, acceptance, subordination, change , and current academic discussions regarding related theories, strengths, and weaknesses. Second, the article will test the usefulness of MGT by means of a case study involving female prisoners a non-dominant group and prison ministry volunteers a dominant group.
Tradisi Komunikasi Kritis, Muted Group Theory, Standpoint Theory
Teori kelompok bungkam ini dirintis oleh antropolog Edwin Ardener dan Shirley Ardener. Meskipun demikian, melalui pengamatan yang lebih dalam, oleh Ardener bahasa dari suatu budaya memiliki bisa laki-laki yang melekat didalamnya,yaitu bahwa laki-laki menciptakan makna bagi suatu kelompok,dan bahwa suara perempuan ditindas atau dibungkam. Perempuan yang dibungkam ini dalam pengamatan Ardener,membawa kepada ketidakmampuan perempuan unutk tidak dengan lantang mengekspresikan dirinya dalam dunia yang didominasi laki-laki. Shirley Ardener menambahkan pada teori tersebut dengan menunjuikan bahwa diamnya perempuan memiliki beberapa alasan dan ini terbukti dalam situasi percakapan dilingkungan orang banyak.