The discovery opens the possibility of designing new types of drugs against conditions such as epilepsy. The results are presented in the journal Science Advances. The answer is that they all affect the ability of nerves to transmit electrical impulses by affecting the ion channels in nerves. Ion channels are small openings in the cell membrane of nerves that open and close like doors, in order to allow electrically charged ions to enter or exit. When enough ions have flowed into the nerve cell, an electrical impulse is released and transmitted along the nerve.
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D from Paul Sabatier University Toulouse. Bernard Attali is Full Professor at the Sackler Medical School in Tel Aviv University, where his research aims at elucidating the structural, biophysical and physiological attributes of potassium channels. Bernard Attali contributed to the characterization of Kv7 potassium channels, whose mutations in humans lead to cardiac arrhythmias, epilepsy or autism disorders.
He also showed that M-current inhibition in hippocampal neurons triggers intrinsic and synaptic homeostasis plasticity. He has published so far more than papers in peer-reviewed international journals. His research is focused on sensory neuron biology, with an emphasis on sensory transduction mechanisms and on the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic pain.
Current projects are focused on the basic physiology of TRP channels, diabetic and chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, and translational studies of complex regional pain syndrome CRPS and fibromyalgia.
His current interest is the translation of molecular mechanisms in Primary Aldosteronism, leading to non-invasive techniques PET CT, endoscopic ablation for the cure of hypertension. In , he became full Professor and was appointed chair of physiology at the School of Pharmacy of Torino University in EC contributed to the discovery of T-type calcium channels and cell-signalling pathways that regulate electrical signals in brain neurons and neuroendocrine cells.
His recent work at the Dept. EC also contributed to the development of new diamond-based micro-arrays for detecting neurotransmitter molecules and electrical signals in neurons and neurosecretory cells. EC is author of papers on international journals, reviews and reference work on voltage-gated ion channels. Whilst in Reno, Iain working with Burt Horowitz identified KCNQ channels expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and since returning has been at the vanguard of research that has established these channels as major regulators of smooth muscle contractility in many arteries and non-vascular tissues uterus, bladder, colon, penis.
His research group are currently focused on deciphering the myriad of mechanisms that control KCNQ-encoded channel activity. Professor Rajesh Khanna Dr Rajesh Khanna, Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Arizona College of Medicine, is an expert in ion channel biology and voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels regulated by novel protein interaction.
In , Dr Khanna was elected as Sr. Member of the National Academy of Inventors. He graduated from Kyushu University, Faculty of Medicine in and had clinical training of neurosurgery for two years. He has worked on mechanisms underlying formation and operation of brainstem auditory circuits that are involved in sound localization, particularly focusing on ion channels, such as Kv1.
He is now interested in axon initial segment plasticity, neuro-glial interaction, and differentiation of neurons during development. He is addressing these issues by integrating multiple techniques, such as patch clamp recording, two-photon imaging, and computer simulation.
His research initially focused on peptides of natural or synthetic origin that form pores in membranes before moving on to study the structure and function of nervous system ion channels using natural and synthetic toxins that interact with them to alter their conducting properties.
Major projects have included studies of polyamine-containing toxins found in solitary wasps and spiders that antagonise ionotropic receptors; the actions of pyrethroid insecticides on susceptible and resistant voltage-gated sodium channels; multi-target ligands for neurodegenerative disease; and more recently the identification of ion channel ligands from ladybird haemolymph and centipede venom.
His research mainly employs electrophysiological techniques including patch-clamp and two-electrode voltage-clamp of cell lines, primary cultures and ion channel expression systems, particularly Xenopus oocytes. She has devoted her research career to understanding the structure, function and cell biology of ion channels and in recent years has worked predominantly on P2X-purinergic receptors, a family of ATP-gated cation channels that play a critical role in immune cell signalling and are implicated in many pathologies including chronic pain, inflammation and cancer.
She continued her training as a post-doctoral fellow, first at Oxford University and then at Stanford University in California with Richard Aldrich, investigating the structure and function of voltage-gated potassium channels. She returned to the UK to a Lectureship in the Department of Pharmacology at the University of Cambridge and continued her work on ion channel regulation, making a major contribution to our understanding of the assembly and subcellular targeting of different members of the P2X channel family.
In particular, she identified a novel role for P2X4 as a lysosomal calcium channel. She gained her PhD from University College London and the Novartis Pain Institute where she began her interest in ion channel physiology, studying the regulation of sodium channels of dorsal root ganglion neurones.
She then held a visiting fellowship at the National Institute of Health at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in North Carolina USA where her research focussed on the regulation of potassium channels of pituitary neuroendocrine cells. Her second postdoctoral research fellowship was at the University of Leicester with Professor Nick Standen focusing on potassium channels of cardiac muscle and their role in stress tolerance.
He holds an active diploma as M. For his research, the Austrian Science Fund has continuously funded him since He studied for his B. Sc in Pharmacology at the University of Glasgow, moving to UCL for his PhD studies on ionotropic glutamate receptors and glutamate transporters expressed in cerebellar neurons and glia.
In he moved to the University of Edinburgh. David has a long-standing interest in structure-function relationships of ionotropic glutamate receptors and specifically how subtype-dependent biophysical and pharmacological properties, together with identified disease-causing mutations in these receptors, contribute to their physiological and pathophysiological roles in the CNS.
The other major focus of his lab is to use rodent and pluripotent stem cell-derived models to study dysfunctional signalling present in monogenic neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders.
Abstract abstract Voltage-gated ion channels respond to changes in the transmembrane voltage by opening or closing their ion conducting pore. The positively charged fourth transmembrane segment S4 has been identified as the main voltage sensor, but the mechanisms of coupling between the voltage sensor and the gates are still unknown. Obtaining information about the location and the exact motion of S4 is an important step toward an understanding of these coupling mechanisms. In previous studies we have shown that the extracellular end of S4 is located close to segment 5 S5.
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New method to dampen nerve signals
Personporträtt: Fredrik Elinder