GROMATICI VETERES PDF

Roman Republic[ edit ] At the foundation of a colony and the assignation of lands the auspices were taken, for which purpose the presence of the augur was necessary. But the business of the augur did not extend beyond the religious part of the ceremony: the division and measurement of the land were made by professional measurers. These were the finitores mentioned by the early writers, [3] [4] who in the later periods were called mensores and agrimensores. The business of a finitor could only be done by a free man, and the honourable nature of his office is indicated by the rule that there was no bargain for his services, but he received his pay in the form of a gift. These finitores appear also to have acted as judices , under the name of arbitri single arbiter , in those disputes about boundaries which were purely of a technical, not a legal, character. The first professional surveyor mentioned is Lucius Decidius Saxa , who was employed by Mark Antony in the measurement of camps.

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History Roman Republic At the foundation of a colony and the assignation of lands the auspices were taken, for which purpose the presence of the augur was necessary. But the business of the augur did not extend beyond the religious part of the ceremony: the division and measurement of the land were made by professional measurers.

These were the finitores mentioned in the early writers, [2] [3] who in the later periods were called mensores and agrimensores. The business of a finitor could only be done by a free man, and the honorable nature of his office is indicated by the rule that there was no bargain for his services, but he received his pay in the form of a gift. These finitores appear also to have acted as judices, under the name of arbitri sing.

The first professional surveyor mentioned is Lucius Decidius Saxa, who was employed by Mark Antony in the measurement of camps. The distribution of land amongst the veterans, the increase in the number of military colonies, the settlement of Italian peasants in the provinces, the general survey of the empire under Augustus, the separation of private and state domains, led to the establishment of a recognized professional corporation of surveyors.

The practice was also codified as a system by technical writers such as Julius Frontinus, Hyginus, Siculus Flaccus, and other Gromatic writers, as they are sometimes termed. The teachers of geometry in the large cities of the empire used to give practical instruction on the system of gromatics. This practical geometry was one of the liberalia studia; [5] but the professors of geometry and the teachers of law were not exempted from the obligation of being tutores, and from other such burdens, [6] a fact which shows the subordinate rank which the teachers of elementary science then held.

The agrimensor could mark out the limits of the centuriae, and restore the boundaries where they were confused, but he could not assign without a commission from the emperor. Military persons of various classes are also sometimes mentioned as practising surveying, and settling disputes about boundaries. The lower rank of the professional agrimensor, as contrasted with the finitor of earlier periods, is shown by the fact that in the imperial period thare might be a contract with an agrimensor for paying him for his services.

Generally, therefore, they were either employed by the parties themselves to settle boundaries, or they received their instructions for that purpose from a judex. In this capacity they were advocati. Under Trajan a certain Balbus, who had accompanied the emperor on his Dacian campaign, wrote a still extant manual of geometry for land surveyors Expositio et ratio omnium formarum or mensurarum, probably after a Greek original by Hero , dedicated to a certain Celsus who had invented an improvement in a gromatic instrument perhaps the dioptra , resembling the modern theodolite ; for the treatises of Hyginus see that name.

It is doubtful whether Boetius is the author of the treatises attributed to him. The Gromatici veteres also contains extracts from official registers probably belonging to the 5th century of colonial and other land surveys, lists and descriptions of boundary stones, and extracts from the Theodosian Codex.

According to Mommsen, the collection had its origin during the 5th century in the office of a vicarius diocesan governor of Rome, who had a number of surveyors under him. The surveyors were known by various names: decempedator with reference to the instrument used ; finitor, metator or mensor castrorum in republican times; togati Augustorum as imperial civil officials; professor, auctor as professional instructors.

Niebuhr, Roman History, ii. Rossi, Groma e squadro Turin, ; articles by F.

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