History[ edit ] The history of the island begins with the Iron Age. The Greeks gave Montecristo its oldest known name, Oglasa or Ocrasia, after the yellowish colour of the rocks. The Romans, however, knew it under the name Mons Jovis, and erected an altar to Iuppiter Optimus Maximus on the highest mountain, of which some traces remain. During the imperial age, the Romans opened some quarries to extract granite , perhaps used in the construction of villas on the islands of Giglio , Elba , and Giannutri. At the beginning of the seventh century, Pope Gregory the Great submitted them to the monastic rule of the Benedictines.

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Picaud was placed under a form of house arrest in the Fenestrelle Fort , where he served as a servant to a rich Italian cleric. When the cleric died, he left his fortune to Picaud, whom he had begun to treat as a son. Picaud then spent years plotting his revenge on the three men who were responsible for his misfortune. He stabbed the first with a dagger on which were printed the words "Number One", and then he poisoned the second.

In another of the "True Stories", Peuchet describes a poisoning in a family. This story, also quoted in the Pleiade edition, obviously served as a model for the chapter of the murders inside the Villefort family. Faria inspires his escape and guides him to a fortune in treasure.

As the powerful and mysterious Count of Monte Cristo Italy , he arrives from the Orient to enter the fashionable Parisian world of the s and avenge himself on the men who conspired to destroy him.

Villefort, the deputy crown prosecutor in Marseille, destroys the letter from Elba when he discovers that it is addressed to his own father, Noirtier who is a Bonapartist , since if this letter came into official hands, it would destroy his ambitions and reputation as a staunch Royalist. He is rescued by a smuggling ship that passes Monte Cristo. Fearing the members of the ship will find him and his treasure, he used the excuse of hunting sheep while he actually went to hunt the treasure.

Six days later, the smuggling ship comes back for him and he boards it carrying with him only a few diamonds which are carefully hidden. He later purchases the island of Monte Cristo and the title of Count from the Tuscan government. He gives Caderousse a diamond that can be either a chance to redeem himself or a trap that will lead to his ruin. Albert, feeling a debt of gratitude to the Count for his rescue, agrees to introduce the Count into Parisian society.

The Count then moves to Paris and dazzles Danglars with his wealth, persuading him to extend him a credit of six million francs. The rest of it begins to rapidly disappear through mysterious bankruptcies, suspensions of payment, and more bad luck in the Stock Exchange.

Villefort had once conducted an affair with Madame Danglars. She became pregnant and delivered the child in the house that the Count has now purchased. To cover up the affair, Villefort told Madame Danglars that the infant was stillborn, smothered the child, and thinking him to be dead, buried him in the garden. While Villefort was burying the child, he was stabbed by the smuggler Bertuccio, who unearthed the child and resuscitated him.

Benedetto takes up a life of crime as he grows into adolescence. Benedetto is sentenced to the galleys with Caderousse, who had sold the diamond but killed both his wife and the buyer out of greed. The moment Caderousse leaves the estate, he is stabbed by Andrea. Caderousse dictates a deathbed statement identifying his killer, and the Count reveals his true identity to Caderousse moments before he dies.

The Count manipulates Danglars into researching the event, which is published in a newspaper. As a result, Fernand is investigated by his peers and disgraced. During this interview, she learns the truth of his arrest and imprisonment but still convinces the Count not to kill her son. Realizing that Edmond now intends to let Albert kill him, she reveals the truth to Albert, which causes Albert to make a public apology to the Count.

While in prison awaiting trial, Andrea is visited by Bertuccio, who tells him the truth about his father. Villefort admits his guilt and flees the court. The Count demands this sum to fulfil their credit agreement, and Danglars embezzles the hospital fund. Forced to pay exorbitant prices for food and nearly starved to death, Danglars signs away his ill-gotten gains. Maximilien Morrel, believing Valentine to be dead, contemplates suicide after her funeral.

After his transformation into the Count of Monte Cristo, he reveals his true name to his enemies as each revenge is completed. As a result, the Count of Monte Cristo is usually associated with a coldness and bitterness that comes from an existence based solely on revenge.

The Maltese Sailor: The name he was known by after his rescue by smugglers from the island of Tiboulen. Luigi Vampa: Celebrated Italian bandit and fugitive.

She is the daughter of Ali Tebelen. At the end, she and Monte Cristo become lovers. She later marries Fernand and they have a son named Albert. Left all alone, she and Edmond talked for the last time: once young and in love, they choose to take different paths, saying farewell to each other.

She is portrayed as a compassionate, kind and caring woman who prefers to think for her beloved ones than for herself. With the money earned he bought the title of "Count de Morcerf" to bring wealth and a more pleasant life to him and his family. Through the book he shows a deep affection and care for his wife and son.

He is described as a very kind-hearted, joyful and carefree young man, and fond of Monte Cristo, whom he sees as a friend. They had an illegitimate son, Benedetto. She is free-spirited and aspires to become an independent artist. In love with Maximilien Morrel. She is 19 years old with chestnut hair, dark blue eyes, and "long white hands".

A committed anti-royalist. He is paralysed and only able to communicate with his eyes, but retains his mental faculties and acts as protector to Valentine. Becomes "Andrea Cavalcanti" in Paris. In love with Valentine de Villefort. She also dies in the incident. Monsieur de Boville: Originally an inspector of prisons, later a detective in the Paris force, and still later the Receiver-General of the charities.

Barrois: Old, trusted servant of Monsieur de Noirtier. Countess Teresa Guiccioli : Her name is not actually stated in the novel. She is referred to as "Countess Gā€”". Serialization ran from 28 August to 15 January Ainsworth translated the remaining chapters of the novel, again in abridged form, and issued these in volumes VIII and IX of the magazine in and respectively.

This was originally released in ten weekly installments from March with six pages of letterpress and two illustrations by M Valentin.

Most English editions of the novel follow the anonymous translation. In , two of the major American publishers Little Brown and T. Crowell updated the translation, correcting mistakes and revising the text to reflect the original serialized version. In Oxford released a revised edition with translation by David Coward.

In , Penguin Classics published a new translation by Robin Buss. In addition to the above, there have also been many abridged translations such as an edition published by F. Lupton, translated by Henry L. Williams this translation was also released by M. Ivers in with Williams using the pseudonym of Professor William Thiese. Dumas was a member of the Club des Hashischins. As of March , all movie adaptations of the novel brought to Japan used the title "Gankutsu-ou", with the exception of the film, which has it as a subtitle with the title itself simply being "Monte Cristo".

A manga adaptation of the novel, titled Monte Cristo Hakushaku jap. Carlos Javier Villafane Mercado described the effect in Europe: The effect of the serials, which held vast audiences enthralled Day after day, at breakfast or at work or on the street, people talked of little else. Perhaps no novel within a given number of years had so many readers and penetrated into so many different countries. The book was "translated into virtually all modern languages and has never been out of print in most of them.

There have been at least twenty-nine motion pictures based on it New racial-discrimination laws were applied in The general was consequently dismissed from the army and became profoundly bitter toward Napoleon. In , the body of Napoleon I was brought to France and became an object of veneration in the church of Les Invalides , renewing popular patriotic support for the Bonaparte family.

In a small boat, he sailed around the island of Monte-Cristo, accompanied by a young prince, a cousin to Louis Bonaparte , who was to become Emperor of the French ten years later. At that time, the future emperor was imprisoned at the citadel of Ham ā€” a name that is mentioned in the novel. Dumas did visit him there, [22] although he does not mention it in "Etat civil".

The Empire re-establishes slavery. He is imprisoned for life and becomes known as the candidate for the imperial succession. Louis Napoleon is elected its first president but Dumas does not vote for him.



Picaud was placed under a form of house arrest in the Fenestrelle Fort , where he served as a servant to a rich Italian cleric. When the cleric died, he left his fortune to Picaud, whom he had begun to treat as a son. Picaud then spent years plotting his revenge on the three men who were responsible for his misfortune. He stabbed the first with a dagger on which were printed the words "Number One", and then he poisoned the second.


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