Through an EGP protocol, every border router at the border of an AS exchanges external routing information with other border routers: it propagates to other ASes information about destinations which are inside its AS; it propagates to other ASes information about destinations which are inside other ASes but can be reached through its AS. Routes are redistributed both between hierarchical domains inside the AS, and between the AS itself and the external world. Redistribution must not introduce incoherences in routing: a routing loop may form if, for example, a route learnt in IGP and exported in EGP is then re-imported in IGP appearing as an external route; if a certain AS is reachable across multiple border routers of the same AS, these border routers need to agree in order to internally redistribute a single exit point for that route. Often redistribution on a border router at the border of an AS is enabled in one way only from the IGP protocol to the EGP protocol: internal routes are exported to the external world, while external routes are replaced by a default route.
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Connection-Oriented Network Protocol X. This is the use of the X. This level is in charge of transferring data between systems in a network, using network-layer addresses of machines to keep track of destinations and sources.
This layer uses routers and switches to manage its traffic control flow control, error check, routing etc. So here it takes all routing decisions, it deals with end to end data transmission. Layer 4: transport layer[ edit ] The connection-mode and connectionless-mode transport services are specified by ITU-T Rec.
Generally, two connection modes are recognized, connection-oriented or connectionless. Connection-oriented service establishes a dedicated virtual circuit and offers various grades of guaranteed delivery, ensuring that data received is identical to data transmitted. Connectionless mode provides only best-effort service without the built-in ability to correct errors, which includes complete loss of data without notifying the data source of the failure.
No logical connection, and no persistent state of the transaction exists between the endpoints, lending the connectionless mode low overhead and potentially better real-time performance for timing-critical applications such as voice and video transmissions. Layer 5: session layer[ edit ].
List of IP protocol numbers
Connection-Oriented Network Protocol X. This is the use of the X. This level is in charge of transferring data between systems in a network, using network-layer addresses of machines to keep track of destinations and sources. This layer uses routers and switches to manage its traffic control flow control, error check, routing etc. So here it takes all routing decisions, it deals with end to end data transmission.
ISO 10747 IDRP Interdomain Routing Protocol
The whole family of IDRP related documents and their functions are listed in [ 2 ]. This document is an Internet Draft. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet Drafts. Internet Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months. Internet Drafts may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is not appropriate to use Internet Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as a "working draft" or "work in progress. Acknowledgements A large set of thanks to Dave Katz cisco who helped edit this help with the document.
Routing protocols and architectures/Inter-domain routing
ISO Protocol Family