Summary[ edit ] The King Dabschelim is visited by the philosopher Bidpai who tells him a collection of stories with important morals for a King. The stories are in response to requests of parables from Dabschelim and they follow a Russian doll format, with stories interwoven within the stories. Story One - The person who infiltrates a friendship to break it up and its consequences Main Story - The Lion and the Ox The Ox, Shatrabah, was abandoned by his master due to being stuck in a mud pit and was left to be watched by a servant. However, the servant grew tired of waiting and also abandoned Shatrabah and told his master that the ox had died.
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Summary[ edit ] The King Dabschelim is visited by the philosopher Bidpai who tells him a collection of stories with important morals for a King. The stories are in response to requests of parables from Dabschelim and they follow a Russian doll format, with stories interwoven within the stories.
Story One - The person who infiltrates a friendship to break it up and its consequences Main Story - The Lion and the Ox The Ox, Shatrabah, was abandoned by his master due to being stuck in a mud pit and was left to be watched by a servant.
However, the servant grew tired of waiting and also abandoned Shatrabah and told his master that the ox had died. Nevertheless, Shatrabah managed to free himself and make his way to a lush pasture where he lived in peace. But the solitude took its toll on Shatrabah and he would moo loudly in despair and loneliness. The sounds of his wails reached the ears of the lion king who ruled the area. The lion had a court of many animals and predators but had never heard the wailing of an ox.
Dimnah was an ambitious jackal and wanted to earn the favour of the king and become his most trusted member of the court. Upon hearing the wails of Shatrabah, the lion became anxious and wary of venturing outside, as his scouts had reported on the marvellous beast, with its huge horns and menacing frame as Shatrabah had put on weight while grazing in the lush meadow , who was the source of the noise. Dimnah then went and confronted Shatrabah and painted the picture of the fierce lion king and his court of predators to the ox.
As the days passed, a fierce jealousy consumed Dimnah and he became set on taking down Shatrabah. He confided in his brother Kalila, who warned him against his plans but to no avail. Dimnah first approached the lion and told him that Shatrabah was plotting against him and was planning to usurp the power for himself.
The lion decided to confront Shatrabah about these plans and then exile him. Dimnah told the ox that if the lion approaches you with his chest out and mouth open, then know he has come to kill you. Dimnah then went to his brother and told him of his near success before scampering off to witness the showdown. When the lion confronted the ox, they each saw the other exactly as Dimnah had described and so launched themselves at each other.
Shatrabah was killed and the lion was left heavily wounded. Kalila severely scolded his brother for his actions and warned him of the fatal consequences of his deception if he was to be uncovered. The lion king while licking his wounds regretted killing his friend Shatrabah and started to become suspicious of Dimnah.
The mother visited her son the next day and saw how his remorse was eating him up and she scolded him for acting without proper investigation. Dimnah attempted to save the situation with his eloquence but only managed to get thrown into prison.
While in prison, he was visited by his brother Kalila who reminded him of his earlier warnings to not carry out his plot. When the court case came, the judge asked for witnesses and warned them all of the punishment in the hereafter if they hid their testimony. The leader of the pigs tried to defame Dimnah, but Dimnah skilfully talked his way out and managed to avoid any further scandal.
She summoned the leopard who testified against Dimnah, as did the imprisoned cheetah, which was enough for the judge to pass the death sentence. And so Dimnah was mercilessly executed. A man was travelling in the wild when he saw a threatening wolf, so in order to escape he ran but came to a ravine with a river preventing safe passage to the village on the other side.
Faced with death at the hands of the wolf, the man took his chances and jumped in the river in an attempt to swim across. The current was too strong and he was being pulled away, when a group of villagers saw him and came to his aid. After being saved and taken to the village he decided to rest for a while in an empty hut on the outskirts of the village, however to his surprise he entered upon a group of bandits distributing their loot.
In fear of his life, he quickly took off and ran into an alley where he leant against a wall to catch his breath. The wall then fell on him and he died. Sub-story two - The Monkey and the Carpenter - Told by Kalila to Dimnah to discourage him from his plans to get involved with the royal court.
A carpenter had a pet monkey who watched him work all day. The monkey dreamed of using the hammer and pegs of the carpenter, and so one day when the carpenter went for a break he seized the opportunity.
Sub-story three and four are part of the main story Sub-story five - The crow and the serpent - Told by Dimnah to Kalila, defending his ability to take on the mighty ox with wit despite his small frame. There was a crow who lived in a tree with a serpent who lived at the bottom in his burrow.
However, the snake would eat the eggs of the crow. When the crow did this, the humans followed the crow to the burrow and upon finding the snake killed it and retrieved the jewelry, thus relieving the crow of the snake. Sub-story of sub-story five - The toad and the crab - Told by the jackal to the crow as a warning that sometimes plans fail and have bad endings.
There was a toad who lived in a pond full of fish and would eat to his fill daily, however as he grew old he could not fish and so grew hungry. As the toad sat there, old, hungry and sad, thinking of a solution, a passing crab took pity on him and asked what the problem was. The toad told the crab that fishermen were going to come and take all the fish, so he was going to die of hunger. The crab told all the fish the news and they all went to the toad for advice.
The toad suggested moving to a new and safer pond nearby, and he offered to transport two fish daily. The fish took upon his offer, but the toad would take the fish and would eat them and spit their bones out near the other pond. One day the crab asked to be transferred as he had become lonely, so the toad took him, but when they arrived the crab saw the heap of bones and realised what the toad had been doing the whole time, and so quickly grabbed the toad in its pincers and snapped its neck.
Sub-story six - The Rabbit and the Lion - Told by Dimnah to Kalila defending his ability in taking down the Ox after Kalila deemed him unfit for the job There was a lion that ruled a jungle, the occupants gathered together and offered to present the lion an animal a day as an offering, so he would not hunt them.
One day the draw fell to a rabbit to deliver the meal to the lion, however the rabbit did not arrive on time and kept the lion hungry and waiting.
When the rabbit arrived, he came empty-handed, furious the lion demanded to know why. The rabbit claimed that he was going to present another rabbit as a meal, but that rabbit refused and claimed that he was going to feed himself to the real king of the jungle, another lion.
The lion incensed by this challenge of authority demanded the rabbit to take him to the other lion. The rabbit took the lion to the edge of a well and showed the lion their reflection and told the lion that there was the other rabbit and lion.
The lion roared and jumped into the well to attack and drowned. Sub-story seven - The three fish - Told by Dimnah to the lion in an attempt to persuade him that the Ox will betray him, so he should strike first There were three fish in a pond, a wise one, a smart one and a shortsighted one. The fish overheard two fishermen walk past and say that they would come back and catch all the fish in the pond.
The wise fish heard this and immediately left the pond and joined the river that flowed into the pond. The smart fish delayed until the fishermen arrived, but when he tried to leave he was blocked by the nets of the fishermen.
So he flopped out of the pond and pretended to be a dead fish so that the fishermen move him closer to the river, and when they did, he jumped into the river and swam away. As for the shortsighted fish, he was caught. Then a flea visited one day and went with the louse to drink the blood of the richman, but when the flea bit the man, he ran away and the man woke up.
The man only saw the louse and so killed the louse out of anger and pain. There was a lion who had three companions, a wolf, a crow and a jackal. One day a camel left his flock to join the lion, where he stayed for a long time. However they told the lion that they would hunt for him. The crow tried to explain that sometimes sacrifices must be made for the greater good, and the lion stayed silent and that was the sign of his acceptance.
So when the camel offered himself to the lion, they did not intercede and they all fell upon him and ate him. Sub-story ten - The sea bird and the sea agent - Told by Dimnah to Shatrabah while proving his point that a person should not underestimate a weak opponent There were two sandpipers who were a couple, they had a nest near the sea.
The wife insisted on moving their nest to avoid the sea agent, but the husband refused and when the tide came in the sea agent took the nest. The male sandpiper decided to call upon the king of the birds, the phoenix, for help, which he received. The phoenix went with a contingent of birds to attack the sea agent and reclaim the nest, but the sea agent gave it up out of fear and avoided confrontation. Together they devised a plan that the ducks will hold two sides of a stick and fly to the other pond, while the turtle held on with its mouth.
As they were flying, people on the ground started to marvel at this strange sight. The turtle, who was very self-conscious, cursed the onlookers, but in doing so, opened his mouth and fell to the ground and died. An onlooking bird knew that it was a glow worm and not fire and so called out to them to stop their futile chase, as it would not give them the warmth they desired.
The monkeys ignored the bird and carried on. The bird was determined to convince them of their error, when a man said to the bird to leave the monkeys alone, because they are too stubborn to accept their error. The bird refused to listen to the man and flew to the monkeys to convince them, but they got angry and grabbed the bird and threw him to the ground, killing him.
Sub-story twelve - The cunning person and the naive person - Told by Kalila to Dimnah, warning him of the outcome of being cunning. Two businessmen were travelling, when they came across a case of a thousand dinars gold coins. The cunning one proposed to the naive man that they each take a small portion and bury the rest under a nearby tree, and when any of them needed any of it, they would both return and take whatever was needed.
The naive man agreed and they buried the case and went their separate ways. However, the cunning man returned, dug up the treasure and took it all. After some time, the naive man visited the cunning man and told him that he needed some of the money, so they both went to the tree, dug up the area and found nothing.
Immediately the cunning man turned on the naive man and accused him of taking all the money. The naive man, protesting his innocence, ended up in court with the cunning man. The judge asked the cunning man to provide evidence for his claim, the cunning man claimed that the tree would testify that the naive man stole all the money. The judge, intrigued, took the court to the tree to hear its testimony. The cunning man had told his father to hide in the tree and pretend to be the voice of the tree when asked questions.
After the tree answered the judges questions, the flabbergasted judge ordered the tree to be burnt down. The father, within the tree, started to scream and jumped out of the tree and confessed to the judge the whole plot. The judge then ruled in favour of the naive man and the cunning man had to return the dinars gold coins. Sub-story thirteen - The merchant, the iron and the mice - Told by Kalila to Dimnah, scolding him as his image will be forever ruined if he is found out A merchant was leaving his city for a while on a business trip, and he had a large amount of iron in his possession, so he left it in trust with his friend for storage until he returned.
When he returned and asked for his iron, his friend said that mice had eaten all of it. The merchant, furious, left the house and kidnapped one of his friends children. The merchant replied that he saw a falcon swoop down and take him away the other day. In a land where mice eat iron, falcons also kidnap children!
He, along with his moralizing sidekick named Karataka, conspire to break up alliances and friendships of the lion king. A series of fables describe the conspiracies and causes that lead to close and inseparable friends breaking up. It is a collection of adventures of four characters: a crow scavenger, not a predator, airborne habits , a mouse tiny, underground habits , a turtle slow, water habits and a deer a grazing animal viewed by other animals as prey, land habits. The overall focus of the book is the reverse of the first book.
Kalila and Demna
Votes No votes so far! Be the first to rate this post. Tags: Animals - Education - Literature - Manuscripts - Paul Lunde - One of the most popular books ever written is the book the Arabs know as Kalila wa-Dimna, a bestseller for almost two thousand years, and a book still read with pleasure all over the world. It has been translated at least times into 50 different languages.