Russia responded first by orchestrating the return of the ex-Shah , then, when he was defeated by the reformed Persian army, directly invading northern Persia. Britain applied pressure in the south, reactionaries in Tehran overthrew the Majlis , and the Americans were expelled. Anglo-Russian influence in Persia was again secure. These states are nominally independent - and shown as such in most atlases from the period - but have all signed treaties guaranteeing British control over their foreign affairs.

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Middle East Journal A new edition of the work by the American appointed in by the newly and briefly consititutional government of Persia to help organize its finances. Thus, Russia invaded Iran and their army murdered innocent Iranians.

Consequently, Mr. Anyone familiar with the US involvement in the coup to overthrow the popular goverment of Mossadiq in will notice the many parellels and sad ironies in the Shuster text.

This book is also perfect as a background to the relationship between the US and the Persian people. Morgan Shuster William Morgan Shuster — , American lawyer, civil servant, and publisher, who is best known as the treasurer-general of Persia by appointment of the Iranian parliament, or Majlis , from May to December After graduation, Shuster who became a customs collector for the U. The movement forced the Shah to agree to the election of the first Majlis, the opening up of a relatively free press, and a number of other reforms.

After being recommended by the U. Persia was on shaky financial footing at the time due to heavy debts accumulated by the Qajars , the Persian royal family, to the two colonial powers of Great Britain and Russia in Iran. Great Britain and Russia had previously carved up Persia into two spheres of influence pursuant to the Anglo-Russian Convention of Shuster became active in supporting the Constitutional revolution of Persia financially. Imperial Russia immediately landed troops in Bandar Anzali demanding a recourse and apology from the Persian government.

The hiring of Shuster and his American associates as financial advisors concerned the imperial powers, who sought to keep Persia from independent influences and dampen national feeling. Under Russian and British pressure, the vice-regent of Persia expelled Shuster from office in December against the will of the Persian parliament.

Shortly after his arrival the Russian government demanded his expulsion, and when the Majlis refused to do so, Russia occupied northern parts of Iran. The Majlis was suspended, and no budget law was prepared for a number of years. In one well-known passage of that book, Shuster decried the influence of the Great Powers : [I]t was obvious that the people of Persia deserve much better than what they are getting, that they wanted us to succeed, but it was the British and the Russians who were determined not to let us succeed.

The book was subtitled, the story of the European diplomacy and oriental intrigue that resulted in the denationalization of twelve million Mohammedans, a personal narrative.


The Strangling Of Persia

Background[ edit ] Shuster was born in Washington, D. After graduation, Shuster became a customs collector for the U. In Iran[ edit ] In , the Constitutional Revolution of Iran sought to establish a Western-oriented, democratic civil society in Iran , then known as Persia to the outside world. The movement forced the Shah to agree to the election of the first Majlis, the opening up of a relatively free press, and a number of other reforms.


William Morgan Shuster


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